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KB-1® Plus

KB-1® Plus is a suite of custom blended microbial culture formulations for bioaugmentation of sites with inhibitory concentrations of chlorinated ethanes (e.g. 1,1,1-trichloroethane [1,1,1-TCA] and 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane [1,1,2,2-TECA]) and chlorinated methanes (e.g. carbon tetrachloride [CTC] and chloroform [CF]), which are often comingled with chlorinated ethenes. KB-1® KB-1® Plus has been demonstrated to dechlorinate in excess of 200 mg/L of 1,1,1-TCA to chloroethane, 1,1,2,2-TECA to ethene and CTC and CF (up to 75 mg/L) to dichloromethane (DCM). Chloroethane and DCM can be further degraded under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. These cultures have been developed by SiREM in collaboration with the University of Toronto1,2 and the United States Geological Survey3.

Benefits of KB-1® Plus

  • Overcome inhibition of chloroethene dechlorination caused by other compounds (e.g., 1,1,1-TCA and chloroform)
  • Only a single application required
  • Works with all commonly used electron donors
  • Natural microbial culture (not genetically modified)
  • Certified to be pathogen free
  • Rigorous quality control ensures each shipment is effective, stable, and safe
  • Shipped overnight in specially designed stainless-steel vessels that prevent exposure to air and are safe and easy to handle

Included in All KB-1® Plus Purchases

  • KB-1® Plus Guarantee*
  • Technical support to ensure a successful application to your site
  • Complimentary Gene-Trac® Dehalococcoides and Dehalobacter tests to verify the successful delivery, growth and persistence of KB-1® Plus microbes in site groundwater

Contact SiREM for a quotation or more information on our line of leading bioaugmentation products.

Questions Regarding KB-1® Plus

Q. What is the difference between KB-1® and KB-1® Plus?

A. KB-1® is a culture primarily intended to enhance biodegradation of chlorinated ethenes. KB-1® Plus is a suite of custom blended cultures which are capable of dechlorinating chlorinated ethenes plus a wider range of contaminants including chlorinated ethanes (e.g., 1,1,1- trichloroethane) and chlorinated methanes (e.g., carbon tetrachloride, chloroform and dichloromethane).

Q. What are signs that a site may require bioaugmentation with KB-1®Plus?

A. There are several parameters that may indicate the need for KB-1® Plus bioaugmentation:

  • The site has chlorinated ethenes and potentially inhibitory concentrations of 1,1,1-TCA greater than 200 µg/L, or chloroform concentrations greater than 50 µg/L
  • There is a lack of observed breakdown products such as 1,1,-DCA, chloroethane, dichloromethane
  • Gene-Trac® Dhb tests for Dehalobacter indicate low concentrations of these dechlorinating microorganisms

Q. I've heard that 1,1,1-trichloroethane (1,1,1-TCA) and chloroform (CF) may inhibit bioaugmentation cultures. What if my site groundwater has these compounds?

A. 1,1,1-TCA and chloroform are inhibitory to Dehalococcoides populations, which is why SiREM developed the KB-1® Plus cultures which contain other microbial populations (including Dehalobacter) that dechlorinate1,1,1-TCA and CF to less inhibitory compounds. This allows the dechlorination of chlorinated ethenes in the presence of these inhibitors.


1 Grostern, A. and E. A. Edwards. 2006. Growth of Dehalobacter and Dehalococcoides spp. during Degradation of Chlorinated Ethanes. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 72: 428–436.

2 Grostern, A., M. Duhamel, S. Dworatzek and E. A. Edwards. 2010. Chloroform respiration to dichloromethane by a Dehalobacter population. Environmental Microbiology. In press.

3 Jones E. J. P., M. A. Voytek, M.M. Lorah, J. D. Kirshtein. 2006. Characterization of a Microbial Consortium Capable of Rapid and Simultaneous Dechlorination of 1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethane and Chlorinated Ethane and Ethene Intermediates. Bioremediation Journal, Volume 10: 153-168.

*Some conditions apply

For more information on KB-1® Plus